nsfHOURS: HarmOnic and Universal Resource Sharing
Foundations for Resource Sharing in Computing Communities 

Motivation | Our Approach | Projects | People | Publication


Shared Cyberinfrastructure (CI)—federated sharing of dispersed pools of geographically distributed computing resources under coordinated control—has been considered as a promising platform for solving large-scale problems in science and engineering, e.g., NSF's TeraGrid and DoE's Open Science Grid, for building the next generation of distributed Enterprise applications, e.g., open grid services architecture (OGSA), and for sharing resources in our daily lives, e.g., KaZaA, BitTorrent. This trend is a natural combination of “technology push” and “application pull,” and could lead to the emergence of a new service-oriented computing industry if it can be successfully deployed. On one hand, the low cost of COTS (Commodity-Off-The-Shelf) hardware makes it affordable to build a high-end cluster with reasonable performance. On the other hand, the ever-increasing multidisciplinary trend of most research fields demands collaboration among multiple computing sites.

We envision that there are five challenges related to resource sharing in such an open environment, including

This project is funded by U.S. NSF (CCF-0643521).


Our Approach

Choosing the good partner and avoiding the bad partner are the first but very important step for the resource sharing. Making use of the knowledge of the social network to build the trust inference model is our approach to achieve this goal. With the help of the trust model, every peer can build a neighbor set with high-quality peers, thus improve the reliability and stability of resource sharing. However, the trust model can not introduce more incentives, cooperativeness, and efficiency for the resource sharing. We borrow the idea from the real economics to build a currency-based model to complement the missing part of the trust model. Currencies play a role to bridge every units. People can use the currency to buy needed merchandises, or save it for the future use.  So the currency circulation is lite-version of the merchandise exchange. This phenomenon match the P2P system very well. The overview of our approach is showed in the following figure.


In the HOURS project, we propose an approach that consists of two models: M-CUBE, a Multiple CUrrency Based Economic model, as the decentralized trading scheme, and aPET, an adaptive PErsonalized Trust model, to provide the trustworthiness of the peer to support M-CUBE. The M-CUBE model provides a general and flexible substrate to support most of high level resource management services required by the P2P computing, such as resource coallocation, quality of service (QoS) control, advance reservation and scheduling algorithms. aPET is built on top of our previous work on PET, which derives the trustworthiness from the reputation evaluation and risk evaluation. The trustworthiness value provided by PET will be treated as the view of the peer by M-CUBE. The unique feature of our approach is seamless integrating the trustworthiness and dependability of peers into the resource trading.



adaptive PET 


Building a good cooperation in the P2P resource sharing is a fundamental and challenging research topic due to peer anonymity, peer independence, high dynamics of peer behaviors and network connections, and the absence of a perfect security mechanism of P2P systems. We propose PET, a personalized trust model to help the construction of a good cooperation, especially in the context of economic-based solutions for the P2P resource sharing. The trust model consists of two parts: reputation evaluation and risk evaluation. Reputation is the accumulative assessment for the long-term behavior, while the risk evaluation is the opinion of the short-term behavior. Two kinds of knowledge, interaction-derived experience (local knowledge) , and the recommendation (knowledge of other peers), are used to derive the reputation.  Selecting the weights of these two parts are environment specific, and is a decision on the trade off between the reliability and efficiency. In the P2P system, we are suggesting to put more weight on the reputation considering  high dynamics is a special characteristic in this kind of system.  The risk part is employed to deal with the dramatic spoiling of peers, which makes PET differ from other trust models based on the reputation only. Risk evaluation can make the trust model more sensitive. How to make sensitive match the correctness is our ongoing research.  This work contributes to first modeling the risk as the opinion of short-term trustworthiness and combining with traditional reputation evaluation to derive the trustworthiness in this field.  The figure-I is the description of the original PET model. Recently, we are working on an adaptive PET model that captures the dynamics of the system. 




Derivation of Trustworthiness Value




M-CUBE, a multiple-currency based economic model, is a self-policing and distributed approach that is based on top of PET model, to lay a foundation for heterogeneous resource sharing in an untrusted P2P computing environment. With the help of the trust management and the merits of the economic institution, M-CUBE provides a novel self-policing and quality-aware framework for the sharing of heterogeneous resources, and is a flexible universal infrastructure for building high-level resource management related services.  M-CUBE is built upon currency-based mechanism, where the uniqueness of M-CUBE is each peer has its own currency. There are four major modules in M-CUBE: the Price Regulator decides the price of the resources; the Ratio Regulator determines the exchange ratio of the currency based on the trustworthiness value provided by the PET model; the Service Discovery module is in charge of discovering the available resources provided by remote peers; finally the Currency Exchange module enables peers to bargain until the agreement of the currency exchange is reached, and then makes the exchange.




Dr. Weisong Shi 

Quan Zhang

Bing Luo

Shinan Wang

Raymond Lemon (REU Student)

Michael Moore (REU Student)

Former Members

Jacqueline D. Brown  (REU Student)

Sudharsan Srinivasaraghavan 

Tung Nguyen

Zhengqiang (Sean) Liang

Brandon Szeliga

Zhifeng Yu

Jayashree Ravi

Publications and Technical Reports

Bing Luo, Shinan Wang, Weisong Shi and Yafeng He, eCope: Elastic Hardware Customization for Power Efficiency of High-End Servers, submitted. Technical Report MIST-TR-2013-010.

Quan Zhang, Grace Metri, Sudharsan Raghavan, and Weisong Shi,
RESCUE: An Energy-Aware Scheduler for Cloud Environment, submitted. Technical Report MIST-TR-2013-009.

Zujie Ren, Xiaohong Zhang and Weisong Shi, Resource Scheduling in Data-Centric Systems, in Handbook on Data Centers, S. U. Khan and A. Y. Zomaya, Eds., Springer-Verlag, New York, USA. forthcoming.

Tung Nguyen and Weisong Shi, MapReduce in the Cloud: Data Location-Aware Virtual Machine Scheduling, accepted by ZTE Communications, January 2014.

Jianfeng Zhan, Lei Wang, Xiaona Li, Weisong Shi, Chuliang Weng and Wenyao Zhang, Cost-aware Cooperative Resource Provisioning for Heterogeneous Workloads in Data Centers, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Vol. 62, No. 11, November 2013. pp. 2155-2168.

Zujie Ren, Jian Wan, Weisong Shi, Xianghua Xu and Min Zhou
, Workload Analysis, Implications and Optimization on a Production Hadoop Cluster: A Case Study on Taobao, accepted by IEEE Transactions on Services Computing. July 2013.

Tung Nguyen, Jingwen Zhang and Weisong Shi, SPBD: Streamlining Big Data Processing in Cloud Environments, ZTE Communications, Vol. 5, No. 2 June 2013.

Ying Song, Yuzhong Sun and Weisong Shi, A Two-Tiered On-Demand Resource Allocation Mechanism for VM-Based Data CentersIEEE Transactions on Services Computing, Vol. 6, No. 1, Jan-Mar 2013, pp. 116-129.

Zujie Ren, Xianghua Xu, Jian Wan, Weisong Shi and Min Zhou, Workload Characterization on a Production Hadoop Cluster: A Case Study on Taobao, 2012 IEEE International Symposium on Workload Characterization, November 4-6, 2012, San Diego, USA. Best Paper Award.

Tung Nguyen and Weisong Shi, Improving Resource Efficiency in Data Centers using Reputation-based Resource Selection,  Sustainable Computing: Informatics and Systems. Vol. 2, No. 3, September 2012. pp. 138-150.

Zujie Ren, Zhijun Liu, Xianghua Xu, Jian Wan, Weisong Shi and Min Zhu, WaxElephant: A Realistic Hadoop Simulator for Parameters Tuning and Scalability Analysis, in Proceedings of ChinaGrid 2012

Grace Metri, Soumyasudharsan Srinivasaraghavan and Weisong Shi, Experimental Analysis of Application Specific Energy Efficiency of Data Centers with Heterogeneous Servers, in Proceedings of IEEE Cloud 2012, June 24-29, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA

Guoxing Zhan, Weisong Shi and Julia Deng, Design and Implementation of TARF: A Trust-Aware Routing Framework for WSNsIEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol. 9, No. 2, March/April 2012. pp. 184-197.

Guoxing Zhan, Weisong Shi and Julia Deng, SensorTrust: A Resilient Trust Model for Wireless Sensing Systems, Elsevier Pervasive and Mobile Computing, Vol. 7, No. 4, August 2011, pp. 509-522.

Tung Nguyen and Weisong Shi, Toward Waste-Free Computing, Technical Report MIST-TR-2011-002, March  2011.

Ling Liu and Weisong Shi, 
Trust and Reputation Managemewnt, IEEE Internet Computing Magazine, Sep/Oct 2010.

Tung Nguyen, Anthony Cutway and Weisong Shi, Differentiated Replication Strategy in Data Centers, in Proceedings of the 7th IFIP International Conference on Network and Parallel Computing (NPC 2010), Sep 13-15, 2010,  Zhenzhou, China.

Tung Nguyen and Weisong Shi, Improving Resource Efficiency in Data Centers using Reputation-based Resource Selection, in  "The Work in Progress in Green Computing" (WIPGC)  workshop, in conjunction with IEEE the first International Green Computing Conference (IGCC), August 15-18, 2010,  Chicago, US

Zhifeng Yu and Weisong Shi, Queue Waiting Time Aware Dynamic Workflow Scheduling in Multicluster Environments Journal of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 25, No. 4, July 2010, March 2010.

Zhifeng Yu, Chenjia Wang and Weisong Shi, Failure-aware Workflow Scheduling in Cluster Environments, accepted by Cluster Computing Journal, Feb 2010.

Z. Liang and W. Shi, TRECON: A Trust-based Economic Framework for Efficient Internet Routing, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, part A, Vol. 40, No. 1., pp. 52-67, January 2010

Z. Liang and W. Shi, A Reputation-driven Scheduler for Autonomic and Sustainable Resource Sharing in Grid Computing 
Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 111-125, February 2010.

Lei Wang, Jianfeng Zhan, Weisong Shi, Yi Liang, and Lin Yuan, In Cloud, Do MTC or HTC Service Providers Benefit from the Economics of Scale? in Proceedings of 2nd Workshop on Many-Task Computing on Grids and Supercomputers, Co-located with ACM/IEEE SC09, Portland, Oregon, November 16, 2009. 

Brandon Szeliga, Tung Nguyen and Weisong Shi, DiSK: A Distributed Shared Disk Cache for HPC Environments, in Proceedings of the 5th CollaborateCom, Washington D.C., Nov 12-14, 2009.

Ling Liu and Weisong Shi, Trust and Reputation Management in Future Computing Systems and Applications: Guest Editorial, Journal of Computer Science and Technology, September 2009.

Zhifeng Yu, Technical Report MIST-TR-2008-013, Ph.D. Dissertation: Toward Practical Multi-Workflow Scheduling in Cluster and Grid Environments

Z. Liang and W. Shi, TRECON: A Trust-based Economic Framework for Efficient Internet Routing, accepted by IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, part A, to appear, June 2009.

Ying Song, Yanwei Zhang, Yuzhong Sun and Weisong Shi, Utility Analysis for Internet-Oriented Consolidation in VM-based Data Centers, in Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Cluster Computing (Cluster 2009), New Orleans, Aug. 31 - Sep. 4, 2009.

Chenjia Wang, Kevin Monaghan and Weisong Shi, HACK: A Health-based Access Control Mechanism for Dynamic Enterprise Environments, Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE/IFIP International Symposium on Trusted  Computing and Communications, August 29-31, 2009.

Z. Liang and W. Shi, A Reputation-driven Scheduler for Autonomic and Sustainable Resource Sharing in Grid Computing,  Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, to appear, May 2009.

Tung Nguyen, Anthony Cutway and Weisong Shi, Toward Differentiated Services for Data Centers, in 8th USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation  (OSDI WiP session), San Diego, CA, December 7-10, 2008.

Zhifeng Yu, Chenjia Wang and Weisong Shi, FLAW: Failure-Aware Workflow Scheduling in High Performance Computing Environments, Technical Report MIST-TR-2007-010, November 2007, submitted.

Zhifeng Yu and Weisong Shi, A Planner-Guided Scheduling Strategy for Multiple Workflow Applications, in Proceedings of  the fourth International Workshop on Scheduling and Resource Management for Parallel and Distributed Systems, in conjunction with ICPP 2008, September 8, 2008. 

Brandon Szeliga, John Cavicchio and Weisong Shi, DIMM: A Distributed Metadata Management for Data-Intensive HPC Environments, in Workshop on Data-Aware Distributed Computing, in conjunction with HPDC 2008, Boston, June 24 2008.

Zhengqiang Liang and Weisong Shi, Analysis of Ratings on Trust Inference in Open Environments,  Elsevier Performance Evaluation,Vol. 65, No. 2 pp. 99-128. Feb., 2008. [Online].

Zhifeng Yu and Weisong Shi, An Adaptive Rescheduling Strategy for Grid Workflow Applications, in Proceedings of the 21st  IPDPS 2007, Long Beach, Mar 26 -30, 2007.

Zhengqiang Liang and Weisong Shi, TRECON: A Framework for Enforcing Trusted ISP Peering, in Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN '06),  Arlington, Oct 9-11, 2006. 

Zhengqiang Liang and Weisong Shi,  Performance Evaluation of Different Rating Aggregation Schemes in Reputation Systems,
Proceedings of the first IEEE International Conference on Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications, and Worksharing (CollaborateCom '05), San Jose, December 19-21, 2005.

Zhengqiang Liang and Weisong Shi, Analysis of Recommendations of Trust Inference in Open Environments, Technical Report MIST-TR-2005-002, February  2005. submitted under review. (under revision)

Zhengqiang Liang and Weisong Shi, Enforcing Cooperative Resource Sharing in Untrusted Peer-to-Peer Environments, ACM Journal of Mobile Networks and Applications (MONET), Vol. 10, No. 6, pp. 771-783, December 2005.  (A full version is available at Technical Report MIST-TR-04-014.)

Zhengqiang Liang and Weisong Shi, PET: A PErsonalized Trust Model with Reputation and Risk Evaluation for P2P Resource Sharing,  in Proceedings of HICSS-38, January, 2005. 

Jayashree Ravi, Zhengqiang Liang, and Weisong Shi, "A Case for Peer-to-Peer Web Server Sharing," Technical Report MIST-03-011, Nov., 2003.